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Technical analysis: touch the switch of intelligent interconnected lighting

in this white paper, we will explore the rapidly mature intelligent lighting market and study some driving factors that promote the development of consumers towards home automation

we will also explore the specific design challenges associated with wireless lighting connectivity and how developers can use the latest technologies to meet growing needs

reimagining the light bulb

about 140 years ago, Thomas? Edison applied for the first patent on "improvement in electric lights", which describes the use of carbon wire as the conductor of incandescent lamp to limit heating, so that the electric lamp can be continuously illuminated for a long time. At that time, the main design problem was how to prevent the prototype from burning. Today, lighting is almost taken for granted. Obviously, great changes have taken place between them

in the 140 years after Edison made great achievements, one of the most breakthrough advances in the field of lighting is the invention of LED. Today's LED, especially the interconnected led, has some additional functions, such as color selection. In addition, LEDs emit more lumens per watt than traditional incandescent bulbs, which greatly reduces energy consumption. The energy efficiency of LED is not affected by size. However, due to connectivity requirements, all this control brings new complexity to users

imagine that when you come home from work, the light will be turned on before you enter the door. Or in the morning, when the plane crashed into the right engine room when it made a forced landing, the lighting will slowly wake you up in an hour by gradually adjusting the color and brightness

nowadays, although LED lighting is a global industry worth $30billion, it has not yet crossed the gap and become mainstream lighting. At present, the cost of color interconnected bulbs is about $50 per bulb, while the average American household has 40 lamp holders. Spending nearly $2000 on bulbs is not conducive to promotion for anyone, and only the most enthusiastic early adopters may be willing to accept it

but the price has been falling. In 2014, the price of a standard LED bulb was $25, but now it is only $2. Falling prices create opportunities for suppliers to differentiate

advantages of interconnected lighting

as we mentioned earlier, three main advantages are promoting the adoption of interconnected lighting: convenience, intelligence and data analysis. Lighting is an important environmental factor, which has an important impact on people's daily life. For example, in an office environment, lighting is usually static and therefore does not change. The light is either on or off. When opened, the room is full of fluorescence. This kind of light is good for reading, but it is not suitable for staring at the computer screen. If the ambient lighting can be adjusted accordingly to suit the current work, it will be very convenient, which has become a reality. And the use of intelligence and sensors also gives users the opportunity to learn about occupancy data and other information, or monitor indoor conditions, temperatures, and even flow patterns. Finally, intelligent LEDs can provide analysis functions related to location and space utilization. For example, LEDs can be used to identify the most utilized areas in a building or provide feedback on the efficiency of warehouse space use

in the United States, a family has an average of 40 lamp holders, and the cost of interconnected color bulbs is about $50 each

most people will choose to install a small number of interconnected LEDs at home to gradually enter the era of intelligent lighting. In addition to changing the nature of output, intelligent lighting and the resulting connectivity have brought a lot of benefits to housing. No matter where you are, users can use wireless monitoring and control capabilities to control energy use. In addition, intelligence and data analysis also bring added value, which can not only allow consumers to view energy consumption in real time, but also control intelligent objects through mobile devices, and add advanced functions such as space occupying and environmental condition sensors, so that the environment can respond spontaneously without any action by users. In terms of more intelligent control of lighting, occupancy, ambient light, and even temperature sensors all play an important role. Turning off the lights when there is no one in the room is really just the tip of the iceberg

location based lighting is also an emerging convenience function. This concept uses light to judge the position or occupancy of people. The presence of lights means that there are activities going on, and people usually gather in places with lights. Because the lamps are fixed, they are usually evenly separated in industrial, commercial, and even some outdoor places (such as parking lots and urban centers), so they can perfectly illuminate the position of people. The use cases of integrating positioning function in lamps are very common. The simplest form is to combine the health status and location of the lamp, so that people can determine the maintenance time of the lamp preventively, so as to save time and money. Using sensors or Bluetooth? Beacon and other technologies can accurately judge a person's position

using the information obtained by aggregating data of different time and space, the space utilization efficiency of warehouses, supermarkets and even parking lots can be determined. Another use case of such data is that retailers can selectively promote products based on the location of shoppers

in 2014, the price of standard (non interconnected) led bulbs was $25 per bulb, which has now fallen to about $2

emerging market trend

security is gradually becoming a common problem faced by equipment, and lighting is no exception. The quality of the system depends on its weakest link. But who will ensure the security of the system? Security should not be regarded as a function that can be realized at the end of the development cycle, but should run through the whole process

these wireless systems are very complex, and engineers focus on designing effective products, so it is easy to become stubborn and pursue effectiveness at the expense of other considerations. There is a powerful systematic approach to reduce these risks and help teams focus on their areas of expertise

the good news is that there are tools that can significantly improve the security of intelligent lighting systems

innovation is no longer a challenge. The real challenge is to learn how to use technology in the right way. For example, turning off the security function on Bluetooth or chip can simplify development and facilitate debugging. This may also drive down the price of parts, so there may be some financial incentives to disable safety. Another common error is that the debugging interface is not closed when the chip is put into production. If the end user connects the debugger, the chip will become completely transparent. Cancelling security may bring short-term benefits, but it will bring long-term costs far beyond these benefits

everyone serving the intelligent lighting market, from chip designers to consumer equipment manufacturers, needs to share the burden. At present, there is no real incentive for everyone to undertake more as part of their own work. When a serious attack occurs, the consequences are not just loss of revenue or damage to a single brand. Losing the trust of consumers can cause the market to shrink for a long time. As with any technology, user experience is crucial. If consumers lack a sense of security because of these isolated but well-known failures, people will become hesitant when buying. Long term unsafe equipment may cause industry regulation or certification

when a serious attack occurs, the consequence is not only the loss of income, but also the loss of consumer trust

design requirements and advantages of multi protocol connectivity when considering intelligent lighting systems, we believe that the following factors are key high-level requirements: the flexibility and ease of use of multi protocol are gradually becoming competitive advantages, which can provide better user experience and enhanced use. But how to measure the experimental data of electronic tensile testing machine. You can simply debug ZigBee with Bluetooth, or run ZigBee or thread and Bluetooth at the same time

programmable multi protocol

the most basic multi protocol support must include a chipset, which can run any number of wireless protocols when programming with a suitable software protocol stack. The ability to program chips in production to support Bluetooth smart or ZigBee or thread or some proprietary protocols means that manufacturers can simplify their hardware design and quickly respond to different markets. For all other multi protocol use cases, a chip platform that supports multiple protocols through different software images is the basic premise

switched multi protocol

for any multi protocol platform, the next step is to change the supported wireless protocol by booting and loading a new firmware image after the device is deployed on site. We will see that this requires some basic building blocks, but it creates a lot of opportunities for existing products to meet future needs, including the use of intelligent connectivity to simplify and protect the deployment of ZigBee thread devices to join the wireless network

dynamic multi protocol

finally, any multi protocol solution must solve the possibility of using the time slicing mechanism to share RF between protocols, so as to jointly run multiple wireless protocols on a chip. This opens up more use cases, especially when Bluetooth smart is used in combination with other wireless protocols. In these use cases, the simplest cases include the regular use of Bluetooth beacons on devices that typically run ZigBee, thread, or some other wireless protocol

for example, use Bluetooth beacons next to retail lighting networks to enable short-range sensing applications. If retail stores are equipped with ZigBee controlled lighting systems, ZigBee enabled lighting devices can also be used to transmit Bluetooth beacons on a regular basis. Since the lamps are often evenly spaced throughout the area, the lighting in the store can not only provide lighting in an ideal way, but also transmit information to the equipment according to these locations

bluetooth beacon is used to notify the existence and service of the device. By using the signal strength (RSSI) measurement results received by regularly received packets, the mobile device can measure its distance from any specified beacon and determine whether it is close to the beacon or far away from the beacon. By monitoring multiple beacons, you can accurately understand the location of mobile devices in the store. In the example of a retail store environment, Bluetooth beacons can be used to provide coupons and customized offers related to the shopper's location in the store. The store will provide shoppers with intelligent applications that can provide location related information and create an interactive user experience based on nearby products and services by monitoring beacons sent by lighting devices throughout the store

concurrent multi protocol

in essence, this is a special type of dynamic multi protocol. For multiple wireless protocols that share the same Mac and PHY, it is possible to avoid switching between different phys or modulations. In particular, if both ZigBee and thread are located in IEEE 802.15.4 2.4GHz mac/phy, there is an opportunity to share the PHY and run the two protocol stacks efficiently on one device at the same time, because RF can always be used for the two protocol stacks. Routing between ZigBee and thread in the same network may bring very meaningful prospects

the difference between this use case and other dynamic use cases is that because the RF protocol or parameters do not change, there is no packet loss when the user leaves the network. Therefore, although there are two networks/protocols sharing bandwidth, the user still cannot receive ZigBee packets and thread packets at the same time, but the common CCA mechanism can be used to avoid conflicts

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